According to France Philosopher Renee Descartes Human body is a machine and that it functions mechanically had its repercussions in medical thought. Life is a series of chemical processes. William Harvey in 1628 a Student of Cambridge and Padua published a book Classic Book Concerning the motion of the heart and Blood. In the 18th century medical science developed by some European thinkers and by some prominent schools like as, Edinburgh in Scotland, Padua in Italy and Cambridge in England. Scottish doctors were the leaders in surgery and obstetrics in 18th century London. The treaties on the theory and practice of midwifery was published in 1752-1764 by William Smellies, this book developed the medical discipline and brought a sound change in midwifery in the modern medical system. After the great development in midwifery the safe use of obstetrical forceps, saved countless lives. The science of modern pathology also had its beginning in this world. A book named “The seats and causes of Disease investigated by anatomy“ was written by Giovanni Morgagni from Padua in 1761 developed the whole Disease investigation system. He wrote this book based on700 Western union locations postmortem examination. The discovery of vaccination system saved countless lives in 18th century. Identification of vector of malaria that the anopheles mosquito in 1897. In Boston 1846 first demonstration of the use of a general anesthesia was held. This system if disciplined for surgery, and in 1847 chloroform was tired the complete success and soon it was preferred for anesthesia choice. Understanding of physiological processes was rapidly elucidated, especially in Germany where physiology became established as a distinct science under guidance of Johannes Muller a professor at the University of Berlin. In 19th century great medical advance was demonstration that certain disease and surgical infections were caused by minute living organism. This discovery changed the face of pathology and the practice of surgery. A pioneer in the parasitic theory of infection was Agostino Bassi of Italy, who showed that a disease of silkworms was caused by a fungus that could be destroyed by chemical agents. The discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Roongen in 1895, and Radium by Pierre and Marie curie in 1898 developed the medical system. Preventive medicine was considered as important as the cure of disease. Sigmund Freud developed the new field of psychiatry in modern medical science. Scientifically knowledge radically altered and expanded medical practice and led to establishment of public and professional bodies to govern the standards for medical training and practice during the 19th century in modern world. The science of pharmacy emerged slowly from the traditional empiricism of the herbalist, but by the end of the 19th century there had been some solid achievements in the analysis of existing drugs and in the preparation of new one. New discoveries in biochemistry and physiology led to more precise diagnostic tests and therapies. Discovery of various diagnostics system during 19th century developed the modern medicinal and medical practices all over the world. But the almost beneficiaries of medical system Europeans, and the modern medical system first introduced in Europe. Today’s developed countries developing more and more of their medical diagnostic system and medical system.
What is alternative medicine? The answer is very easy to reply, the use and applications of medicine instead of Allopathic, i.e. western traditional medicines is called alternative medicines. It is true that only the western medicines are not the approach to health and healing. There are so many systems existing in treatment history. Like as; naturopathy, homeopathy, traditional Chinese medicine, ayurveda, etc. by these medicine we can treat the whole person, mind and body over human society. Here a few discussion about those medicines.
Naturopathy: – this is the system formed mainly in India in ancient period, almost all over the world it was existed in contemporary ages. But the actual time was unknown. The emergence of naturopathy is for the need of people at ancient time, the emphasis is on supporting health rather than fighting disease. This form of medicine relies on natural remedies, such as sunlight, air and water, along with natural, supplements to promote well being. But it was not with out side affect natural herbs and supplements can have potentially dangerous side affects or interactions with certain drugs. Also practitioners can range from accredited, degreed naturopathic physicians to those with almost no training at all about total system of naturopathy.
Homeopathy: – as a system of alternative medicine homeopathy is very popular now a days. It believes that the body can heal itself. But this system is very lengthy, as people are treated based on many factors, such a body type, genetics and personal health history, and physically emotional and mental health symptoms. It is considered to be generally safe, but limited in the standard medical literature, homeopaths system believe that a disease can be cured by treatment with a substance that produces similar symptoms in healthy people. It also belief as the law of minimum dose, very small doses of high diluted substances stimulate the body to heal itself and that the diluted medicines still retains its original essence.
Traditional Chinese Medicine: – traditional Chinese medicine system originated in ancient china and has evolved over thousands of years. It is such health system that, approach includes many methods of treatment, although Chinese herbs and acupuncture are the most common. Traditional Chinese medicine include, the world is shaped by opposing, yet completely, force, the basis for yin-yan theory. Health depends on the harmonious balance of energy circulating through pathways in the body. Symptoms and conditions can be categorized using these eight principles, cold, heat, interior, exterior, excess, deficiency and yin yan. Five natural elements, fire, earth, metal, water and wood, reflect how our bodies work and correspond to different organs and tissues.
Ayurveda:-the word “Ayurveda’ means science of life. Ayurveda take its cures from the universe, these medicines are all about balance in one’s life. from the time of born our balance in life started, as a newborn, you possessed innate qualities that helped to frame your physical and mental patterns. The essence of who you are at the start of your life is called prakriti. At the other end of the spectrum is vikruti, which is who you are today. Vikruti is basically your prakriti combined with all that has affected you throughout life, this includes yours friends, what you choose to eat, the type of work you do, your hobbies. Ayurvedic practitioners consider carefully what dosha is of greatest influence in a person. Before identifying what disease may be at work, the practitioner needs to understand who the person is and if there’s great discord in the person’s life between the innate and the current self. Ayurveda considers everything you encounter to have therapeutic value. Whatever you come in contact with, the foods you eat, how you dress, the way you sleep, what you see and hear, affects you in some fashion and shapes you. Ayurveda consider the variables in our environment, it takes steps to counter discord in your life, ayurveda consider food as medicines and ayurvedic medicines practices appear to be safe and affective. But good quality scientific studies on ayurvedic practices are limited.